ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My deepest thanks to Professor L. Carrington Goodrich, who very kindly read the manuscript and wrote the preface; to Elisa Adams for copy editing the manuscript; to Hugh Moss for arranging for many of the translations; to Bernard Wald for his help and enthusiasm; and to Janos Szekeres for his assistance and suggestions. Translations of the inscriptions on the portrait bottles in the collection of Edward Choate O'Dell, President of The International Chinese Snuff Bottle Society, were provided by the owner. Those for the portraits of Chang Chih-tung, Prince Su, Wang Wen-shao, and the Brandeis University bottle were done by Chu Kuang-fu. The Wade-Giles system for the transliteration of Chinese names and places has been followed throughout. As Immanuel C. Y. Hsu noted, "Though not perfect by modern linguistic standards, the Wade-Giles system has been widely followed by the Sinologists for many decades, and it was used here for convenience and consistency."' While pictures of the portrait bottles came from various collectors, the examples from the J. & J. collection were photographed by Reinaldo Mandacaru. The photographs of the subjects were obtained from out-of-print Chinese publications. For details of the Chinese drama I am indebted to Professors A. C. Scott, and Colin Mackerras. Art work for the end papers was done by Maureen Neumann. Calligraphy for the Glossary and cover was provided by Robert Goodwin. I am grateful to my husband, Myron, who did most of the photogra- phy, aided in the research, and gave continuous support and encour- agement.